Here are some one liners...
Doctor Mom Helps Discover Scabies -- Scabies (a skin disease) is well known but its cause (mites) is documented this year. Apparently Mothers have known for some time though.
Isaac Newton's Scientific Revolution -- His famous Principia is published this year. The Laws of Motion will change everything. I talk about the egos that get hurt by Newton, and I make a bad math pun.
Doctor Mom Helps Discover ScabiesScabies has been a well known disease for centuries but its cause has been a mystery. The word itself comes from the Latin word for "scratching." A rash appears on the skin with small bumps that itch terribly. It is best known as a disease of children but almost anyone can get it. This year Dr. Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo notices that mothers help their children with the itching by using a fine needle to break the skin and squeeze out a small globule of fluid. These mothers then crush the globule with their fingernail as if they are killing a flea so the Doctor takes a closer look at the globule under a microscope. He is surprised to see a six-legged insect with two horns. It is a mite. He sees these little mites eating their way into the skin. Looking more carefully, he realizes that they are also depositing small eggs under the skin. He becomes one of the first doctors to discover the exact cause of a disease... right after Doctor Mom.   
Isaac Newton's Scientific RevolutionIt is the science of the forces of nature. Newton is pushing scientific thought in new directions and he is not the only one, but he is the one who will get most of the credit after he publishes his Principia this year. He is talking about large bodies in motion such as planets, the Sun, the Moon, and the tides, Earth's bulge and comets in orbit. Beginning with a few assumptions called the Laws of Motion, Newton builds a universe. He also covers fluidics and the speed of sound. He gets help from Edmund Halley, the fellow with the comet, who edits Principia, and makes corrections to the text. By changing everything, Issac Newton is going to make some smart people very angry. In these days, there is something essential to have when explaining the workings of the universe. You need an ego the size of the cosmos.     
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1687, Wikipedia.