Here are some one liners...
How Things Work: Keeping the Streets Clean -- Street paving becomes a public utility. (So does latrine maintenance but let's not open up that can of worms... uh... never mind).
The Grand Sergeant: The Next Best Thing to Immortality -- Question: when you hire someone to hold up your head when you are sea-sick, how does this become a permanent and inheritable position? Answer: when it is a government program!
How Things Work: Keeping the Streets CleanDuring the Middle Ages, street maintenance was considered the duty of individual property owners but such maintenance was uneven (that was a pun) so the City of Coventry (which is north of London) has hired street pavers for regular street maintenance and charge the property owners for the service. By 1474 the job of "paver" will be a recognized occupation and the city pavers of London will become a formal organization in 1479.  
The Grand Sergeant: The Next Best Thing to ImmortalityThere is no good way to say this so let's quote the historian directly regarding jobs and the reason they exist in the 15th century... it's a religious thing...
In matters of utility or of ceremony medieval authority creates a special organ for every function, because it regards the function as an idea and considers it as an actual thing. The “grand sergeant” of the king of England comprised a dignitary whose office it was to hold the king's head when he crossed the Channel and was suffering with sea-sickness. A certain John Baker held this office in 1442, and after his death it passed to his two daughters.
-- Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages